Answer the following questions in 600 words.

 

From the section on experimentation:

1.If a high school chemistry student conducts a single experiment and concludes from the results that energy was not conserved in their calorimetry apparatus, does this provide meaningful evidence against the law of conservation of energy?  Why or why not? 

2. In testing the various factors which could possibly affect the rate of a chemical reaction, why test only one variable at a time while keeping all other variables constant?  Wouldn't it save time to test all possible variables at once by varying them all at once and examining the results?

3. Suppose you wanted to test reactant concentration vs. reaction rate.  What would be some logical choices for control variables?  What are some possible, but unlikely choices for controls?  What are some illogical choices for controls?  How do you know how to answer these questions?

4. Carnap briefly suggests it is possible to conduct experiments on large groups of people.  Do you believe this could lead to any meaningful results?  In other words, are there actually laws of history and sociology or is human interaction so complex that no laws could ever be discerned?  In Carnap's terminology, are history and sociology merely descriptive or do they also have explanatory and predictive power?

 

From the section on the quantitative method:

5. Suppose you were asked to conduct an experiment testing how the heating or cooling of a metal bar affects the length of the metal bar, but were required to do so without the use of numbers.  Why does this so severely limit your experimental procedure, the results, and the value of the results?